the attraction of two sink-flows in space-time is supported by two counter-rotating vortex flows
NEW GRAVITATION THEORY
An alternative understanding of the elementary force gravity
by Dr. Ing Franz Maurer
A new theory of gravity, witch enables a unification of the theory for long distant astronomy with the theory of smallest particles.
The understanding of elementary forces in physics is still incomplete due to the incompatibility of the present understanding of gravity with that of the other elementary forces.
This article starts from the general agreement that time as the fourth dimension in spacetime only makes sense, if there is movement: But movement not only of particles or masses within the space defined by the three geometrical dimensions with time, but movements within and of the “empty” but energy loaded space time field itself, not to be mixed up with immovable ether theories, but assuming, that at extreme velocities, “relativistic“ velocities, within the spacetime field, the flow gets momentum, that means mass. This conclusion may be justified, since we calculate the mass of photons based on the Compton-Effect and their momentum with the relation of Planck`s constant, multiplied with the frequency and divided by the velocity of light. Based on these assumptions strong binding forces, fluid-forces at relativistic velocities between quark particles, are explained as well as gravity between masses up to astronomic scales.
Abstract: Spacetime is understood as an incompressible and frictionless fluent medium. Expansion, bending and twisting of spacetime are already accepted movements in and of spacetime, but rather restricted, and since, finally, gravitational waves could be detected, there should be no restriction to consider a thesis with spacetime being a fluent medium, frictionless and incompressible, the defining assumptions for „potential flows“. The degree of incompressibility was given to be 10 with power 32 as a result of the successful measurements of gravitational waves ! That means incompressibility, and that is what we get assuming spacetime to be a „Potential Flow“. ( Albert Einsteins comparison of spacetime with a very flexibel horizontal rubber-sheet with heavy spherical balls causing a shell-scarred areas is therefore no longer acceptable. It asks for a high flexibility of spacetime and the same is true for the star behind the sun being visible because the mass of the sun bending spacetime.)
So as Maxwell assumed an electrical potential in analogy to hydrodynamics, a similar potential for movements within space time is assumed, movements which, when reaching „relativistic velocities“, are responsible for all forces acting at a distance and not only transport gravity action at astronomic scales, but dominate forces in the nuclear region or even generate mass as quark particles, being extremely small sinks within spacetime, with or without superimposed left or right running vortices, in the center of which these relativistic velocities are reached with mass- and momentum effects. Corresponding antiparticles come into existence in an „anti spacetime“ : Sinks in our world with superimposed vorticity appear as sources in the anti-world with counterrotation, where either the high speed particle character may be quickly lost and only “ordinary“ anti-spacetime remains at low or zero velocity. For mathematical treatment of such flows the methods of potential fluid mechanics as well as MHD – magneto hydrodynamic – are available or need further development. Since the action of gravity forces in astronomic dimensions is completely independent from electrical effects, this article neglects them, or should I say: we have to neglect them, when looking predominantly for the origin of gravity in the micro world. Each mass „inhales“ spacetime according to the sum of its quark particles. Each second mass at a distance inhales spacetime as well, so that they attract one another being near by or at long distant sinks in spacetime.
The present discussion
The present discussion on “unified theories” is worldwide and only a few directly related activities can be briefly mentioned. Albert Einstein’s revolutionary idea to explain gravity as a result of the flexibility within space-time can no longer be accepted. Nevertheless the understanding of a bent space-time and the action of forces due to this bending is something we can get used to, but the discovery of gravitational waves and the consequential attribute of spacetime being extremely hard, say infinitely hard, is in absolut contrast to Einsteins assumption of extreme flexibility! In connection with the late discussions of dark energy we learn, that even the absolute void is “loaded” with energy, radiation or wave energy; or we imagine a “wildly dynamic quark- gluon mixture“ in which by means of „quantum field calculations instantiated appearance of mass and momentum“ could be demonstrated, as reported by Nobel Laureat Frank Wilczek, „from almost nothing“ as he said. Quantum fluctuations (!) in absolute Vacuum could be experimentally verified.by Hendrick Casimir.
Further we learn that the difference of energy per unit of volume is almost independent from whether it contains additional mass or not. That is due to the enormous distances of whatever “particles” we envisage inside molecules and atoms, so that even the volume of a rock is more than 98% just intermediate space to be identified with energy loaded „empty“ space-time.
Even though it is not the subject of this article a statement of Louis de Broglie is known , that due to interference of electromagnetic radiation with beat frequencies, high energy "particles" may appear with mass character and A. H. Compton already calculated the momentum of a single photon to be the Planck constant multiplied with the frequency of the radiation and divided by the velocity of light. A later contribution from string theory or more specific "twistor-theory" of Roger Penrose from Oxford University is illusive: Already the name twistor indicates, that he envisages shapes of rotational character forming within space-time and “twisted” representing particles. But he still thinks of spaces or rooms, – not only warped as assumed by Einstein - but twisted, possibly in a complex 8-dimensional space (Atkins), which again would be just geometry and the action of forces is not really evident.For further discussions of string-or superstring theories the book of Josef Silk (Ref.*) was helpful for the author (with „only“ engineering adjucation), but not convincing as far as quark-particles or gluons are concerned forming protons and neutrons, so that further discussions of the subject in this direction would only burst the frame of this article.
The only convincing further step would be to understand the energy loaded space-time field itself not just as “wildly” dynamic but intelligently structured. A dynamic space-time, reaching locally extreme velocities, where due to „special relativity“ inertia and mass appears with momentum changes and forces are acting . Before discussing this, we try to understand a proposal of Quantum Dynamics (Ref. 11 und 12) in which scientists consider several families of fundamental particles, which are the „words“ of the „Standard Model“ and their interactions are their „grammar“.The latest proposals are „String and Superstringtheories“, the word „string“ chosen suggesting solutions for the missing binding forces or the wishful thinking but not convincing „gluons“ from „glue“. Three types of interactions (sometimes ignoring gravity !) are envisaged: Electromagnetism, which is an aspect of the „unified electroweak interaction“ and acts on any particle that carries electric charge. Another aspect is the „weak interaction“ which acts on all particles, inclusive neutrinos, and - last but not least - the „strong interaction“, which acts between quarks. It is this latter interaction this article is concerned with, almost exclusively, even though it may be an unrealistic simplification, but it leads directly to the bridge between forces in the field of elementary „particles“ and gravity up to astronomical dimensions.
But let us first look into the envisaged structure of a proton, taken from Ref. 12. The dominant „particles“ are obviously the gluons, representing the strong binding forces between different types of quarks by helical springs. But let us first look into the envisaged structure of a proton, taken from Ref. 12. The dominant „particles“ are obviously the gluons, representing the strong binding forces between different types of quarks by helical springs. We should remember, that the enormous atomic energy (E = M c²) is mostly concentrated in these binding forces. But doubts should be allowed, how moving particles in general should be able to act in such a way, that other moving particles feel a strong binding. It is not only the internal tension of a „particle“ which rises doubts, but the way of fixing connection to the quarks with „hooks and eyes“ (of course only symbolic) so that the whole arrangement reminds us of a nice piece of unskillful handicraft. Nature is so rich with extremely intelligent solutions, that there must be something better: i.e. a more intelligent solution for quark particles with extremely strong binding forces resulting from neighboring sinks within spacetime at relativistic velocities forming a proton or neutron as the elements of matter.
Flow structures and forces in space-time
Movements in and of space-time forming structures means to consider flow phenomena such as left- or right running vortices as well as sinks and sources with combinations of all of them including doublets, resulting when distances get infinitely small. That however means that these flow structures are not only kinetic in themselves but influence near or more distant surroundings“as if ” they were mass themselves. The “simple” algebraic equations for such structures and the forces between them we find in classical frictionless, incompressible two- and three dimensional potential fluid mechanics. [e.g.(7) page 340...] The additional specification “free of vorticity” does not say, that there are no vortices, but that the structure of vortices is such, that there is no vorticity. The analogy of „Potential Flow theory“ to phenomena in electrical field theories was already discovered by Maxwell, but so far similar analogies for non electrical flow fields and, possibly, acting forces have never been considered, since nobody could imagine the appearance of mass and momentum.
Therefore it should be allowed – without any intention to reintroduce the old immovable and therefore discredited type of “ether” into the discussion – to assume that in the energy loaded spacetime field we not only have bending and expansion, but potential flow movements up to extreme velocities with the appearance of mass and momentum transport. Extremely high velocities are reached in a sink and vortex structure, when approaching the centre of rotation. In classical potential flow theory it does not increase to infinity, which is very important for mathematical approaches.[(7) page 230] In potential flows the velocity at the very centre of vortices is always zero and not infinite and extremely near the centre we have solid body rotation with linear increase or decrease of rotational velocity. This “solid body rotation” may pretend a particle character. Such structures then can be considered as being elements of mass itself. A spherical nature of vortices, however, can only result if we assume a fast precession of the rotational axis which may be called all axis rotation.
Considering a single electron, Hudson et al.(1)(2) describe an experiment for the Large Hadron Collider aimed at ”refining our understanding of this fundamental particle and, more broadly, the basic laws of nature”. They say that “this work has important ramifications for the types of particles that can be discovered at high-energy- accelerators, and it may eventually help to explain the composition of the observable Universe”. (Strong Words!)
Experiments of such far reaching significance should be performed on the basis of hypothetical structures or shapes of the particles, so that results may either support or falsify assumptions. . Hudson et al. assume a spherical or slightly non spherical shape of “whatever it may be”. So what can be expected if it is just a very high speed sub nano fluidic structure? The arbitrarily selected shapes from (Ref.7 ) shown in the following pictures were considered to be two-dimensional, but we may understand them as cross sections of three dimensional shapes resulting by rotation around an axis of symmetry or we may select an axis with fast precession movement to get spherical and possibly even toroidal shapes. In any case these two dimensional flow pictures assume, that in case of sinks and sources „mass“ disappears or appears in or from the third dimension. If in case of three dimansional flows we might say, that mass disappears or appears in or from a fourth dimension, which is the world of antimatter. The big problem of missing antimatter is still mentioned later.
The parameter Q in the following streamline pictures is in fact a complex variable of the form x + i y, in which i denotes the imaginary number sqr (-1).This mathematical approach is very helpful when combining several quarks with strong binding forces due to relativistic velocities approached in the center region instead of „hooks and eyes“ and sticking gluons. (e.g. 3,4 or 6 quarks as shown in the upper line of pictures, what, however, may be a wishful interpretation of the author.)
The “doublets” resulting from source and sink flows or from counter rotating vortices approaching zero distances have a dipole character. Another doublet combination may be looked at alternatively as a combination of a strong source and sink infinitely close together in one plain, or as a pair of strong counter rotating vortices infinitely near each other in a plain at right angles to the former [Ref.(7) page 240 and 281ff)] resulting in three dimensional shapes. The methods of magneto-hydro-dynamics have to be applied. instead of „hooks and eyes“ and sticking gluons as proposed in Ref.12 (first picture above)
If sinks and sources as well as left or right running vortices are considered as elements of what we called “particles” so far, then a source would be the anti particle of a sink, and a right running vortex the antiparticle of a left running vortex. In the doublet form, when distances approach zero, they do not extinguish each other and may be bricks of matter as well. If quarks e.g. were tiny sink flows with or without superimposed left or right running vortices (up and down or charm and strange or even colored quarks in QCD = Quantum Chromo Dynamics) their anti particles would be corresponding source flows, which however can only exist in “statu nascency”, since a source flow in a three dimensional space immediately looses its high speed particle character and re-develops into (ordinary) space-time, which should be understood as „anti-spacetime“ , so that the combined sink and source flow can be considered to be a dynamic version of a „De Sitter“ spacetime element according to the famous Netherlands contemporary scientist with Albert Einstein.
Another question to be answered is, what happens in big ring collider experiments, when two such intelligently structured and even beautiful “particles” as shown in Fig.7.14 above (which is Fig.14 of (7)) crash with almost twice relative light velocity? No more beauty and definitely not much of intelligent structures and information to be discovered?!
The essential new aspect is, that “particles” are just kinetic structures of or within the energy loaded spacetime / anti spacetime field, and that forces, e.g. strong binding forces between quark particles as well as far distant astronomic forces result from kinetic interactions, when due to extremely high velocities, i.e. relativistic velocities, mass and momentum changes occur. At far distance the remaining velocities and accelerations of a mass „ A“ may of course be low, but they interact with each atom and each quark particle with relativistic velocities of mass „B“ , so that gravity is felt vice versa. In general: Attraction for counter rotating vortices and for sink flows; repulsion between sources and between vortices with equal rotational direction.
Important to finally emphasize: The appearance of mass in spacetime fields, having their own dynamics with the appearance of mass at extreme velocities inside atoms, is of course a thesis, which still needs further verification. In case that this can be obtained successfully, there remains nothing mysterious with acting forces; they just result from momentum changes and can be calculated with Newtonian consideration. The present thesis may be considered as being a top down approach, which certainly needs a bottom up approach from quantum physics.
Attraction of two Masses M1 and and M2 at distance r
The new aspect of the nature of matter has of course far reaching consequences, which can not be discussed in a very brief paper like this. Let us consider the most simple case of two mass particles M1 and M2 at a distance "R" somewhere in space, which was already mentioned by Ampere and performed in Ref. 7 page 340 for two dimensional flow.( The flow of the sinks just disappears in the third dimension (behind the paper sheet) so as in a three-dimensional case it disappears in the fourth dimension (another time?, the anti-world). Assuming that the “particles” are represented by two sink flows in a three-dimensional case with strength H1 and H2 with dimensions m³/sec. Then the suction influence of H2 at position H1 will be a velocity H2 / (4 Pi R^2) directed towards H1. The corresponding influence of H1 at position H2 will be a velocity H1 / (4 Pi R^2) directed towards H2. So far we talk about volume flow. Now we give density "rho" to the volume flow in regions of extreme velocities approaching the center of the sinks and the flow gets momentum . Generating a flow of mass means momentum change and that results in forces acting on both sinks: F = ( rho / 4 Pi) * (H1*H2) /(R^2) . The similarity with Newton’s law for gravity is quite obvious and was already discovered by Ampere, if (rho/4 Pi) is replaced by the gravitational constant. The density of the medium (virtual or instantiated at extreme velocities) is of course the real problem and a big challenge for quantum mechanics.
The special case of earth gravity
Following the assumption, that the existence of quarks is based on fluidic elements, which are sinks in spacetime permanently transporting spacetime volume into the anti-spacetime world, we consequently have to assume, that the moving earth on its way around the sun, due to its huge mass, permanently creates a corresponding huge suction flow almost instantaneously all over its surface. This suction flow-field propagates with light velocity, (the latest announcement, that finally the existence of gravitational waves could be detected, will support this idea), so it runs together with the earth, even somewhat ahead of the earth, “inhaling” spacetime instead of bending it. Of course light velocity will remain constant in all directions (Lorentz experiment). Light, that must be mentioned here, is of course an electromechanical phenomenon and the waves are transversal to its direction, while gravitational waves are observed as longitudinal waves. From this we must conclude, that only crosswise components interfere e.g. when a star is observed very near the rim of the sun during a solar eclipse. (Eddington’s famous proof of Einstein’s theory) which under these crosswise condition would support the present thesis as well.
This inhaled „wind“ of spacetime around the sun as well as around the earth corresponds to their masses and decays with the square of the distance according to the increasing spherical surfaces. Near the surface of the earth an accelerated spacetime „volume flow“ directed towards the center of the earth causes an acceleration for other emerged masses, which „drink“, due to their own quark particles, from this flow in motion, feeling in each atom i.e.in each quark particle, the momentum change as weight ! Therefore we are talking of the gravity constant 9.81 m/sec² being the acceleration due to gravity. When jumping from a high tower, in a second of „weightless“ free fall, we know that we reach a velocity of 9.81 m/sec. Each quark particle and consequently each kg mass of our body during this time inhales spacetime as well. The difference between the velocity of our body and the earth’s suction velocity produces a corresponding change of momentum and the driving force for the acceleration. The velocity of the „inhaled wind“ is calculated in an Addendum at the end of this article, based on the gravity acceleration constant 9.81 m/sec² .
In our orbiting space station the weightless condition is different, since the orbital centrifugal forces completely balance the weight of the astronaut. Since this way of gravity interpretation is so unusual, I may say it again: On the surface of the earth each quark particle of a body has to take spacetime for its existence from the spacetime wind of the earth directed vertically into the earth’s surface. The spacetime wind can be considered as being completely massless, but when there is interaction with the high speed phenomena in the quark particles of our body being sink-vortex combinations, the quark particles (billions in our body with all limbs) feel the slight vertical „draft“ due to the change of momentum when drinking, and we feel our weight! (see the „Addendum“ mentioned). Another question must still be answered: The solid structure of our body as well as that of the earth’s surface prevents us from being swallowed (Remember: We are more than 90% spacetime ourselves) .The formation of solid structures due to strong binding forces between spacetime-fluidics in the nuclei of atoms can build even chainlike structures in crystallization processes in three dimensions with extremely strong binding forces forming even diamonds.
The idea, that mass generates or is generated by sink flows in space-time, and more specific, that each atomic nucleus i.e. each quark particle is a tiny sink in space-time, being a „bridge“ to the anti-spacetime world, finally means, that all massive bodies in the universe, the sun, all stars and galaxies and - not surprising – all “black holes” exert the expected attraction forces. Any light-beam passing e.g. the sun from a distant star – the famous proof for the validity of Einstein’s general relativity - will be deviated in the same way, but not because the spacetime is bended due to the mass of the sun, but due to the lateral movement of spacetime being “inhaled” due to the mass of the sun.
Bending or acceleration?
Coming back to the idea of Albert Einstein, that the bending of spacetime causes the gravity forces, we can argue, that the first derivativ of space, or better for a point in spacetime with respect to time, is a way; the second derivativ with respect to time is then a velocity, The Third derivativ of space with respect to time is acceleration rather than bending. Bending of spacetime should better be understood as acceleration of spacetime! Both theories finally may come to the same result when forces are calculated.. The enormous advantage of a dynamic spacetime would be, that it absolutely combines astronomic large scale gravitational forces with those in particle physics. The long search for a „unified theory“ would be successful. Already the famous old Greek philosopher Heraklit insisted to say : “all is fluent”, while Demokrit saw final and not further fissionable particles leading to the - successful - theory of atoms. But since atomic fission was successful, the increasing number of elementary “particles” and their properties are getting more and more speculative with respect to their particle character, and when physical properties run short, we use: “up and down, top and bottom, and charm and strange” ( Ref. 12), or even colored as in “quantum chromodynamics” to typify them, which indicates our lack of real physical understanding! The first important proof of the validity of Einstein’s GR was the bending of light emitted from a star far behind the sun during the famous solar eclipse in May 1919. The same deviation of light can be explained, as pointed out previously, assuming the sun being a huge sink in space-time due to her mass and the deviation of the light beam in her suction generated cross flow.
It was Albert Einstein’s ingenious idea to give an attribute to spacetime making it flexible with expansion and bending to explain gravity forces. The process of bending and expansion is already a movement of and within spacetime. So why shouldn’t we continue and give even more freedom of movement to and within spacetime and try a dynamic model with „Potential Flow theory“, which means instead of flexibility no compressibility and absolute frictionless and even massless flows of spacetime, which obtains mass only when approaching „relativistic“ velocities. These occur e.g.in all quark „particles“, if we understand them as fluidic phenomena like sinks with or without superimposed vortices within spacetime, transporting spacetime into the „anti-world“, where they permanently accompany the original quark as antiquark which means as source with counterrotation, which have no attraction force but get worn and loosing the high speed particle character and re- develop into „ordinary“ anti spacetime, explaining the missing of all the antimatter and compensating for the enormous „consumption“ of spacetime volume for all existing matter.
The strong forces which develop between neighboring sinks and vortices at partly relativistic velocities are the key for understanding a unified „Potential Flow Theory“ of an incompressible, frictionless medium called „Spacetime“, which explains attraction of masses as a consequence of their „inhaling“ of spacetime volume in these sinks, proportional to their mass, inside atoms between quark particles, as well as weight near the earth’s surface and between all far distant astronomic bodies. The inhaled volume flow represents, when exhaled as sources permanently coupled to the sinks, the world of antimatter like a mirror or anti - world. To work out all the details of this alternative understanding of gravity and, possibly, other elementary forces, would need a whole, probably new generation of physicists.
Addendum: Calculation of the Velocity of the suction „wind“ on the earth`s surface causing the acceleration of gravity 9.81 m/sec².
Vr is the local velocity of the „spacetime suction wind“ directed towards the earth`s center. If R is the distance from the center of the earth, then the velocity of a spherical sinkflow, the origin of which being the masses of the decreasing sperical shells with decreasing spherical radius 4Pi R² dr inside the globe, is reaching zero at R=0. This is due to the spacetime „volume consumption“ of quark particles from spherical shell to spherical shell. And Vr is decreasing also outside the globe following the increasing crossestion 4Pi R², so that even at moon ditance the acceleration dVr/dt is still high enough to compensate the moons cetrifugal acceleration on its way arround the earth.(The assumption, that the whole suction is „virtually“concentrated in the earth`s gravity center, corresponding to the simplyfying assumption, that the gravity of all the mass of the earth is concentrated in the center, would be possible when calculating the velocity Vr very far outside the globe, as in case of the moon, but will be used as a first approach for all distances R >= Re, with Re = Radius of the earth.) We assume the flow of spacetime being a frictionless and incompressible „potential“ flowfield, massless below relativistic velocities, but includind sinks, sources and vortices inside which relativistic velocities are approached.
The total spacetime volume flow H, measured in m³/sec, is calculated based on the known gravity acceleration 9.81 m/sec² near but outside the earth surface, which means at a distance R >= 6000 km from the center, where we assume a huge virtual sinkfow representng the total sinkflow from all atomes or quark particles.
For the following calculations the sign for multiplication will be „* “,for division „/“, for exponent on basis 10: „E“ and for squareroot „sqr“, and Pi the circle number.
For a distance R>= 6000 km from the center we get: H = 4 Pi R² * Vr and Vr = H / 4 Pi R² = (H / 4 Pi) * 1 / R² m/sec
Since the suction flow H is assumed to be constant with time, the velocities and consequently the accelerations are only depending on the distance R from the center:
dVr / dt = dVr/ dR * dR/dt = 9,81 m/sec² at R= Re dVr / dR = (H / 4 Pi) * ( - 2 / R³) = - H / (2 Pi R³) m/sec/m
As expected we have acceleration with negative dR (decreasing R for R>Re). We have special interest for our distance Re = 6000 km on the earth`s surface, where we know the acceleration to be 9.81 m/sec². Strictly speaking that is an increase of the velocity for its own starting value from second to sesond, which can be related to the way of 1 meter as well, and with dR/dt = Vr :
dVr / dt = - H / (2 Pi R³) * Vr m³/sec /m³ * m/sec = m/sec²
- H = dVr/dt * 2Pi R³ / Vr and with R= Re (earth`s radius):
and Vr = H/ 4 Pi Re²
- H = dVr/dt * 2 Pi Re³ / H / 4Pi Re²
H² = +9.81 * 2 Pi Re³ * 4Pi Re² m/sec² m³ m²
= 774.57 * Re³ * Re² Re= 6E6 m
= 774.57 * 2.16E20 * 3.6E13
H = 2.454 E18 m³/sec For R = Re we get:
Vre = H / 4 Pi Re² = 2.454 E18 / 12.566* 36E12
Vre = 5425 m/sec that is 0.000018 Lichtvelocity
which is the spacetime suction flow, vertical to the earth surface causing our weight and that of all masses near the earth`s surface. We „only“ feel it as weight in all limbs, that is to say in each atom, better in each quark particle, since there the suction of the quark sinks accelerates the flow to relativistic velocity and diverts the vertical into a horizontal direction with the corresponding momentum change and force.
The vertical velocity Vre meets the horizontal surface velocity of the rotating earth, which is 1666 km/h or 0,4628 m/sec near the equator. The well known „aberration effect“, which causes an aberration of vertical light from stars, would be in our case arcus tangens 0,0000853, which should be investigated in more detail. A further effect of the vertical suction velocity is a contribution to the „Fata Morgana“, which is mostly explained as an „Air-mirroring“ effect“ and the visibility of far distant ships.The calculation of the suction volume H for the earth, based on a local gravity constant of 9.81 m/sec², can of course not be used for calculating the attraction force of far distant bodies like the moon, since any local measurement of gravity does not contain the attraction force of huge masses of the earth, which do not contribut at all or only under a more or less sharp angle to the the vertical direction. C.F. Gauss calculated the change of the gravity acceleration for near distances from the earth, even for inside locations. For far distances the assumption of a virtual extreme suction located in the eaerth`s center would be the solution analogous to a center of gravity.The general conclusion of the article: Instead of a bending of spacetime we see a dynamic spacetime with acceleration and deceleration in well known fluidic structures of potential flows, causing strong binding forces inside atoms as well as the action of gravity at long distances, and at the same time explain the permanent formation of antispacetime or anti-matter in a parallel or mirror world.
The moon in the „gravity suction“ of the earth. Distance of moon: 384 000 km, Mass of moon: 735E22 kg
From the equation for the accelerations on the spherical surfaces with radius R derived above we find the acceleration at a distance of the moon:
dVr / dt = dVr / dR * dR / dt und dR / dt = Vr
dVr / dR = (H / 4 Pi) * ( - 2 / R³) = - H / (2 Pi R³) m/sec/m
dVr / dt = - H / (2 Pi R³) * Vr m/sec/m * m/sec = m/sec²
- H = dVr / dt * 2Pi R³/ Vr and with R = Rm = Rmoon- orbit and Vr = H / 4Pi Rm²
- H = dVr / dt * 2Pi Rm³ / (H / 4Pi Rm²)
- H² = dVr / dt * 2Pi Rm³ * 4 Pi Rm²
-H² = dVr / dt * 8 Pi² Rm³ * Rm² m/sec² m³ m²
Die Beschleunigung dVr / dt at the distance of the moon is Rmoon *(omega)². With omega = 2Pi / T und T in seconds:
27 days 7 hours i. e. 648 + 7 = 655 hours with 3600 ceconds: T = 2 358 000 sec. The angular velocity: omega = 2Pi / T = 6.283 / 2358000 = 2.6646E-06 /sec with (omega)² = 7.100 E-12 and the acceleratiom dVr / dt : R(moon) * (omega)² = 2.726 E-03 m/sec²
- H² = 2.7E-03 * 8 Pi² * Rm³ * Rm²
- H² = 1.78 E42 and H = 1.334 E21 m³/sec
Compared with the suction volume 2.454 E18 m³/sec, calculated for the surface of the earth and the gravity constant 9,81 m/sec², we see a rather big difference. Of course the suction volume must be as constant as the mass of the earth. There are several reasons for the Difference:
1. The attraction of the moon on the earth contributes essentially to keeping the moon on its orbit and was not considered so far.
2. The gravity constant 9.81 m/sec² was explained to be valid only for gravity action near the earth surface, where huge masses of the globe do not contribute at all or only under a more or less sharp angle. (C.F. Gauss for correct values )
3. The influence of the sun on the moons orbit was not considered (Three body problem)
References in the text to well known authors like Louis de Broglie, Paul Dirac, Albert Einstein, Frank Wilczek, Steven Hawking, Roger Penrose and others stem from secondary literature and are not especially cited being accessible e. g. in internet publications and are supposed to be well known. Further used publications but not always cited, helping a non particle physicist and “only engineer”: (*)Silk Joseph: „Das fast unendliche Universum“, translated from the english original : The Infinite Cosmos. Questions from the frontiers of cosmology (2006)
1. Aaron E. Leanhardt. A search for electrons that do the twist. NATURE Vol 473 26. May 2011 Page 459.
2. J.J. Hudson, D.M. Kara, I.J. Smallman, B.E. Sauer, M.R. Tarbutt & E.A. Hinds Improved measurement of the shape of the electron. NATURE Vol. 473 26. May 2011 Page 493.
3. Robert D. Bock. Radial Quantization in Rotating Space-Times. Foundations of Physics, Vol. 37, No. 6, June 2007
4. Rix, H.W. Perspektiven astronomischer Entdeckungen. Sterne und Weltraum 8/2008 Seite 32 - 40
5. Bartelsmann, M. Das Standardmodell der Kosmologie. Sterne und Weltraum 9/2007 Seite 36 – 44
6. Einstein´sche Feldgleichungen. Allgem. Relativitätstheorie. Wikipedia page 1- 24
7. Rauscher, M. Introduction to Aeronautical Dynamics. Chapters on Vortices and Potential Functions. Chapman & Hall,ltd. London. John Wiley & Sons Inc.New York
8. Shapiro, A.H. Compressible Fluid Flow. Volume 1. The Ronald Press Company New York, Page 267-272
9. Aufmuth, P Warten auf die Welle. Zustand und Perspektiven der Gravitationswellenastronomie. SuW 1/2009 Seite 30 – 39
Pössel, M. Rezzolla, M.
10.Mit Gravitavitationswellen ins Innere der Neutronensterne. Sterne und Weltraum. 1/2009 Seite 40 – 43
11.Von der Redaktion der Time-Life Bücher: Strukturen des Universums, Die Suche nach der Quantengravitation.
12. Out of this World. Steven Webb Copernicus Books, Imprint of Springer-Verlag
13. Ferguson, K. (This publication just stimulated initially my way of understanding matter): „The fire in the equations“. Title
of the german translation: „Gottes Freiheit und die Gesetze der Schöpfung“. ISBN 3-430-12667-3
author: Dr. Ing. Franz Maurer
phone.: 02246 5316
Former scientific employee of DLR Cologne Germany. Head of transsonic, supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel division Köln. Due to this position between 1979 and 1987 technical member of the Steering Committee of the „European Transonic Windtunnel ETW“ and for 3 years deputy leader of the ETW Projekt Group at NLR Amsterdam. When retired 1994 „hobby“- Astronomy with small privat observatory. To work out all the details of this alternative understanding of gravity and possibly other elementary forces, we would need a whole probably new generation of physicists.
The statement of Heraclitus: “All is fluent” would then be valid even for sub-atomic “Democrit-particles” being nano-fluidics in spacetime. The „artists impression at the end of this article was painted in the 19th century. Van Gogh an admirable Visionary! But again: More questions than answers!?
Artist`s Impression“ : Vincent van Gogh: „Starry Night“ 1889, a Visionary